Diffuse Axon Injury Quiz

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Benjamin Kummer, MD

Benjamin Kummer, MD (Neurology)

Dr Kummer is Assistant Professor of Neurology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS), with joint appointment in Digital and Technology Partners (DTP) at the Mount Sinai Health System (MSHS) as Director of Clinical Informatics in Neurology. As a triple-board certified practicing stroke neurologist and informaticist, he has successfully improved clinical operations at the point of care by acting as a central liaison between clinical neurology faculty and DTP teams to implement targeted EHR configuration changes and workflows, as well as providing subject matter expertise on health information technology projects across MSHS. | Dr Kummer also has several years’ experience building and implementing several informatics tools, presenting scientific posters, and generating a body of peer-reviewed work in “clinical neuro-informatics” – i.e., the intersection of clinical neurology, digital health, and informatics – much of which is centered on digital/tele-health, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. He has spearheaded the Clinical Neuro-Informatics Center in the Department of Neurology at ISMMS, a new research institute that seeks to establish the field of clinical neuro-informatics and disseminate knowledge to the neurological community on the effects and benefits of clinical informatics tools at the point of care.

Shohei Harase, MD

Shohei Harase, MD (Neurology)

Dr. Harase spent his junior and senior high school years in Finland and the U.S. After graduating from the University of Washington (Bachelor of Science, Molecular and Cellular Biology), he worked for Apple Japan Inc. before entering the University of the Ryukyus School of Medicine. He completed his residency at Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital, where he received the Best Resident Award in 2016 and 2017. In 2021, he joined the Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine at the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, specializing in hyperacute stroke.

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Learn more about Diffuse Axon Injury

Content updated on Jan 19, 2024

What is diffuse axon injury?

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of damage that occurs to nerve cells as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI is most often caused by blunt head trauma. DAI is sometimes accompanied by severe alterations in someone's level of consciousness, such as lethargy or coma.

Symptoms of diffuse axon injury

  • Speech that does not make sense, or behavior that is strange

  • Losing consciousness

  • Seizure

  • Injury to the head

  • Decreased responsiveness/expressiveness

  • Unable to remember what I have done

  • History of dementia

  • Abnormal behavior

Questions your doctor may ask to check for diffuse axon injury

  • Do others think you speak incoherently or act irrationally?

  • Have you temporarily lost consciousness?

  • Have you had a seizure?

  • Did you injure your head?

  • Have others mentioned increased forgetfulness?

Treatment for diffuse axon injury

Generally, steroid medications are not routinely given to treat TBI as these medications have been associated with higher death rates than placebo. However, hospitalization and close monitoring in an ICU setting, ideally a neurological ICU, is indicated in the first several days.

View the symptoms of Diffuse Axon Injury

References

  • Humble SS, Wilson LD, Wang L, Long DA, Smith MA, Siktberg JC, Mirhoseini MF, Bhatia A, Pruthi S, Day MA, Muehlschlegel S, Patel MB. Prognosis of diffuse axonal injury with traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jul;85(1):155-159. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001852. PMID: 29462087; PMCID: PMC6026031.

    https://journals.lww.com/jtrauma/abstract/2018/07000/prognosis_of_diffuse_axonal_injury_with_traumatic.24.aspx

  • Davceva N, Basheska N, Balazic J. Diffuse Axonal Injury-A Distinct Clinicopathological Entity in Closed Head Injuries. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2015 Sep;36(3):127-33. doi: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000168. PMID: 26010053.

    https://journals.lww.com/amjforensicmedicine/abstract/2015/09000/diffuse_axonal_injury_a_distinct.2.aspx

  • Smith DH, Hicks R, Povlishock JT. Therapy development for diffuse axonal injury. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Mar 1;30(5):307-23. doi: 10.1089/neu.2012.2825. Epub 2013 Feb 14. PMID: 23252624; PMCID: PMC3627407.

    https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2012.2825

  • Li XY, Feng DF. Diffuse axonal injury: novel insights into detection and treatment. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 May;16(5):614-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2008.08.005. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PMID: 19285410.

    https://www.jocn-journal.com/article/S0967-5868(08)00464-5/fulltext

  • Faul M, Coronado V. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;127:3-13. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52892-6.00001-5. PMID: 25702206.

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/B9780444528926000015?via%3Dihub

  • Edwards P, Arango M, Balica L, Cottingham R, El-Sayed H, Farrell B, Fernandes J, Gogichaisvili T, Golden N, Hartzenberg B, Husain M, Ulloa MI, Jerbi Z, Khamis H, Komolafe E, Laloë V, Lomas G, Ludwig S, Mazairac G, Muñoz Sanchéz Mde L, Nasi L, Olldashi F, Plunkett P, Roberts I, Sandercock P, Shakur H, Soler C, Stocker R, Svoboda P, Trenkler S, Venkataramana NK, Wasserberg J, Yates D, Yutthakasemsunt S; CRASH trial collaborators. Final results of MRC CRASH, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of intravenous corticosteroid in adults with head injury-outcomes at 6 months. Lancet. 2005 Jun 4-10;365(9475):1957-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66552-X. PMID: 15936423.

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014067360566552X?via%3Dihub

User testimonials

Reviewed By:

Benjamin Kummer, MD

Benjamin Kummer, MD (Neurology)

Dr Kummer is Assistant Professor of Neurology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS), with joint appointment in Digital and Technology Partners (DTP) at the Mount Sinai Health System (MSHS) as Director of Clinical Informatics in Neurology. As a triple-board certified practicing stroke neurologist and informaticist, he has successfully improved clinical operations at the point of care by acting as a central liaison between clinical neurology faculty and DTP teams to implement targeted EHR configuration changes and workflows, as well as providing subject matter expertise on health information technology projects across MSHS. | Dr Kummer also has several years’ experience building and implementing several informatics tools, presenting scientific posters, and generating a body of peer-reviewed work in “clinical neuro-informatics” – i.e., the intersection of clinical neurology, digital health, and informatics – much of which is centered on digital/tele-health, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. He has spearheaded the Clinical Neuro-Informatics Center in the Department of Neurology at ISMMS, a new research institute that seeks to establish the field of clinical neuro-informatics and disseminate knowledge to the neurological community on the effects and benefits of clinical informatics tools at the point of care.

Shohei Harase, MD

Shohei Harase, MD (Neurology)

Dr. Harase spent his junior and senior high school years in Finland and the U.S. After graduating from the University of Washington (Bachelor of Science, Molecular and Cellular Biology), he worked for Apple Japan Inc. before entering the University of the Ryukyus School of Medicine. He completed his residency at Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital, where he received the Best Resident Award in 2016 and 2017. In 2021, he joined the Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine at the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, specializing in hyperacute stroke.

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