Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Quiz

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Osler Jay Justo Guzon

Osler Jay Justo Guzon, MD (Cardiology)

Eisaku Kamakura

Eisaku Kamakura, MD (Respiratory medicine)

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Learn more about Pulmonary arterial hypertension

Content updated on Sep 20, 2022

What is pulmonary arterial hypertension?

Pulmonary arterial hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the small blood vessels in the lungs. It could be due to heart disease, connective tissue disease, blood vessel disease, high blood pressure, liver disease, blood clots in the blood vessels to the lungs, and lung diseases. It can affect anyone but is more common in women.

Symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension

  • Feeling breathless

  • Feel the heart is pounding

  • Easily fatigued

  • Hands and feet turned pale and blue

  • My pulse feels irregular

  • Fingers and toes turn from pale blue to purplish-red when in the cold

  • Losing consciousness

  • Irregular heartbeat

Questions your doctor may ask to check for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Your doctor may ask these questions to diagnose pulmonary arterial hypertension

  • Are you breathless or having hard time breathing?

  • Do you feel your heart is pounding?

  • Do you get tired easily?

  • Do you have purple blue colored skin?

  • Does your pulse feel disordered (irregular)?

Treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension

There is no cure, but medications are available to control and slow disease progression. Medications may be taken orally, inhaled, or administered into the vein (IV line.) Lifestyle changes such as diet, exercise and quitting smoking should be adopted. Severe cases may require further treatment such as an organ transplant.

View the symptoms of Pulmonary arterial hypertension


  • Hassoun PM. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2021 Dec 16;385(25):2361-2376. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra2000348. PMID: 34910865.


  • Coons JC, Pogue K, Kolodziej AR, Hirsch GA, George MP. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: a Pharmacotherapeutic Update. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2019 Nov 22;21(11):141. doi: 10.1007/s11886-019-1235-4. PMID: 31758342.


  • Galiè N, Channick RN, Frantz RP, Grünig E, Jing ZC, Moiseeva O, Preston IR, Pulido T, Safdar Z, Tamura Y, McLaughlin VV. Risk stratification and medical therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2019 Jan 24;53(1):1801889. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01889-2018. PMID: 30545971; PMCID: PMC6351343.


  • Rosenzweig EB, Abman SH, Adatia I, Beghetti M, Bonnet D, Haworth S, Ivy DD, Berger RMF. Paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension: updates on definition, classification, diagnostics and management. Eur Respir J. 2019 Jan 24;53(1):1801916. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01916-2018. PMID: 30545978; PMCID: PMC6351335.


  • Southgate L, Machado RD, Gräf S, Morrell NW. Molecular genetic framework underlying pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2020 Feb;17(2):85-95. doi: 10.1038/s41569-019-0242-x. Epub 2019 Aug 12. PMID: 31406341.


Reviewed By:

Eisaku Kamakura

Eisaku Kamakura, MD (Respiratory medicine)

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Kameda Medical Center, Japan

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Yotsuya Yui Clinic, Japan

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Internal medicine

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Rohini R, MD

Ear, nose, throat (ENT)

Bayshore Health Centre, India

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National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan

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