Rupture of Esophageal Varices Quiz

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Maxwell J. Nanes

Maxwell J. Nanes, DO

Emergency department

Aiko Yoshioka

Aiko Yoshioka, MD


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Learn more about Rupture of esophageal varices

Content updated on Sep 20, 2022

What is rupture of esophageal varices?

Tearing of blood vessels in the esophagus (food pipe), causing massive bleeding. This is usually seen in end-stage liver disease, where veins become enlarged from high pressure.

Symptoms of rupture of esophageal varices

  • Vomited blood

  • Black, shiny stool

  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Stomach feels bloated

  • Loss of appetite

  • History of liver cirrhosis

Questions your doctor may ask to check for rupture of esophageal varices

Your doctor may ask these questions to diagnose rupture of esophageal varices

  • Did you vomit blood?

  • Do you have stools that are black (like hair) and shiny?

  • Do you have nausea or vomiting?

  • Do you feel that your abdomen (stomach) is bloated or has a lot of gas?

  • Do you have less or no appetite, therefore eat less food?

Treatment for rupture of esophageal varices

Treatment aims to stop bleeding and support the patient's blood pressure. This is usually done through a camera "scope" procedure to tie off the bleeding areas. Medications and "drip" fluids are given in the meantime. In some cases, surgery is needed to redirect blood flow away from the varices, or for a liver transplant.

View the symptoms of Rupture of esophageal varices


  • Pimenta JR, Ferreira AR, Fagundes ED, Queiroz TC, Baptista RA, de Araújo Moreira EG, de Resende CB, Bittencourt PF, Carvalho SD, Neto JA, Penna FJ. Factors Associated With Bleeding Secondary to Rupture of Esophageal Varices in Children and Adolescents With Cirrhosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Feb;64(2):e44-e48. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001362. PMID: 27496799.

  • Hatayama K, Washio Y, Okamura T, Noda T, Tsukahara H. Neonatal hemochromatosis associated with rupture of esophageal varices. Pediatr Int. 2019 Jul;61(7):735-737. doi: 10.1111/ped.13908. PMID: 31359540.

Medically Reviewed By:

Maxwell J. Nanes

Maxwell J. Nanes, DO

Emergency department

Aiko Yoshioka

Aiko Yoshioka, MD


From our team of 50+ doctors

Just 3 minutes.
Developed by doctors.

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